Sapphire is another variety of corundum. Sapphire differs from ruby in color only. Any color other than red that occurs in the corundum mineral will be a sapphire. The most common color in sapphire is blue. The most desirable and valuable blue shade is the "corn flower" medium blue and transparent. If a sapphire occurs in other colors than blue, the term "fancy" must be used to describe the color.
Sapphire comes from the same places and in the same qualities as its sister stone, ruby, with the best color coming from Kashmir and Burma. The name "sapphire" alone refers to the blue variety. All other color varieties have the color name added to the stone, as in "orange sapphire", "pink sapphire", etc.
Sapphire often has some inclusions, but clarity is still quite good. Its base material, corundum, is the second hardest in existence and, therefore, wears very well. Often, the sapphires used in jewelry are heat-treated or given chemical diffusion to enhance their color. These enhancements are permanent. Like rubies and emeralds, there are good synthetics available for people who like the color but not the cost.
Sapphire was said to be a mind-opening gem. It was supposed to relax the wearer and clarify thought, as well as attract "divine favor". On a personal level, sapphire was said to prevent envy and fraud, and bring truth and good health. It was also said to be a powerful antidote for poison.
Sapphire is the birthstone of September.
||Blue, pink, green and yellow
||The colored varieties of corundum, with the color coming from iron and titanium. Mohs' hardness rating of 9.